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This was the largest political rally for human rights ever in the United States. An estimated , to , participants converged on the Mall in Washington, D. John Lewis, chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the foreground is being beaten by a state trooper during the march in Selma, Ala. This march went down in history as Bloody Sunday for the violent beatings state troopers inflicted on protesters as they attempted to march peacefully from Selma, Ala.

The march was aimed at fighting the lack of voting rights for African Americans. Approximately protesters were to travel from Selma on U. Police violence against protesters brought the march to a shocking end.

Footage of the brutality broadcast across the nation sparked public outrage and boosted support for the civil rights movement. The Chicago Open Housing Movement, also called the Chicago Freedom Movement, was formed to protest segregated housing, educational deficiencies, and employment and health disparities based on racism. The movement included multiple rallies, marches and boycotts to address the variety of issues facing black Chicago residents.

Jim Crow Laws

By Jan. The marchers were met with rocks, bottles and firecrackers. Approximately 30 people were injured, including King, who was hit in the head with a brick. Benjamin Spock and Rev. Many groups and individuals vehemently opposed the Vietnam War in the massive peace movement of the s and '70s. King compared the antiwar movement to the civil rights movement and denounced U. He called for a stop to all bombing in North and South Vietnam, as well as a declaration of a unilateral truce and a move toward peace talks. Resurrection City, a plywood and canvas encampment that housed approximately 3, participants in the Poor People's March on Washington.

Boycotts, Movements and Marches

A march on Washington was planned for April 22, , but when King was assassinated on April 4, the movement was shaken and the march postponed. By May 12, approximately 50, demonstrators had converged on the Mall in Washington and erected a tent city, called Resurrection City, in what became a live-in. The occupation lasted six weeks and ended when bulldozers arrived and mowed down Resurrection City on June The bill of rights the campaign strived to establish never became law, but the federal government enacted several programs to end hunger.


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You are leaving AARP. As noted above, a number of sources warned U. The Vietnam War remains a very controversial subject. It is unlikely historians will ever agree on whether it was necessary or what benefits derived from it. National Archives Photo. Karl Marlantes went to war in as a year-old lieutenant and led a Marine rifle platoon through months of intense combat.

One of the greatest tests of character is telling the truth when it hurts the teller. The Vietnam War will be infamous for the way those who perpetrated it lied to those who fought and paid for it. Lies in the Vietnam War were more prevalent because that war was fought without meaning. Death, destruction, and sorrow need to be constantly justified in the absence of some overarching meaning for the suffering.

Lack of this overarching meaning encourages making things up, lying, to fill the gap in meaning. People lie. They lie in business, they lie in universities, they lie in marriages, and they lie in the military. Lying, however, is usually considered not normal, an exception.

Historic Moments Of The Civil Rights Movement

In Vietnam lying became the norm and I did my part. Prairie Dog, or, more often, P-Dog, was an year-old black machine gunner from one of our eastern seaboard ghettos. He and I had been in the same platoon. P-Dog got his name saving a squad that was pinned down in the DMZ. He took off on his own at a rapid crawl, cradling the heavy and cumbersome M machine gun in his arms. Elbows and knees flying, he outflanked the enemy and blasted them with his machine gun, freeing the pinned squad. Such a maneuver, under heavy fire, takes more than just raw courage. P-Dog had about 10 days to go before he was due to rotate back to the States.

Three of our guys had been picked up smoking marijuana. Could the duty officer come over and take them into custody? That was me.

Taylor Branch reveals 'The King Years'

Smoking dope in those days meant a mandatory court-martial and dishonorable discharge. Any kid with a dishonorable discharge would lose his GI Bill benefits, and typically this meant also losing any chances for further education.

The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement by Taylor Branch

In addition he would never be able to join a union and would therefore never be able to get a decent job. In short, these three kids were had. So much for serving their nation. I left the duty NCO, a career gunnery sergeant, in charge and took the sergeant E-5 who was in charge of the battalion office and a driver along with me. When P-Dog saw me he turned his head away.


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He would look only at the floor. I began shaking inside, knowing the consequences that were going to have to follow. Applying military justice to strangers is a lot easier than applying it to a friend. He was giving me an out. I took it. I ordered the three of them into the jeep and took off. We all three walked away from the jeep and stood in the dark with our backs to it.

After about a minute or two of muffled scrambling and whispers from the three in the jeep, we all turned around and climbed back in. We arrived at battalion headquarters, which like most headquarters never shuts down. In full view of the entire staff I ordered the three of them searched. All three were grinning. They started turning their pockets inside out on their own. P-Dog, ever the showman, flipped open his last pocket with great gusto—and a joint fell out onto the floor. He handed it to me. No one said a word. Everyone just looked at me. I was representing the commanding officer, conducting an investigation of what was considered a serious criminal offense that had been recorded in the logs of two battalions.

In front of at least a dozen witnesses P-Dog had popped a joint out of his pocket. All I could think of was mandatory court-martial and dishonorable discharge. I told the other two kids to get out. They looked at P-Dog, frightened for him, really saying good-bye, and then scrambled out the door. He was a lifer. These men are the core of the system. They love it, and they maintain it with pride, often savagely. He was also a man I respected immensely. I looked him in the eye as square as a young lieutenant can look at a man with 20 more years in the Corps than he.

He was with me in the bush. I handed him the joint. He held the joint up in front of him. No one disagreed. He handed it back to me. When I saw P-Dog later that night I expected some thanks. Lying, in rare cases, can actually exhibit good character.